An electric-vehicle battery, aka EVB, is a type of battery that powers the motors of an EV or HEV. Typically, these batteries can be rechargeable and put under the category of lithium-ion batteries. Basically, these units offer a lot of capacity and provide a lot of power per hour. Let’s find out how these batteries are used in today’s EVs.
There is a difference between ignition, lighting, and starting batteries. Actually, the role of these units is to provide power for a long period of time. In other words, they are deep-cycle units.
Those that are designed for EVS feature a high power-to-weight ratio and density. Plus, they are lightweight, which is why they can help improve the performance of an EV. Unlike liquid fuels, other technologies have relatively lower levels of specific energy. Often, this has a significant impact on the range of these vehicles.
In today’s EVs, the most common type of battery is the lithium-ion battery. They offer a higher energy density for their weight. Some other types include sodium nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, and lead-acid ones.
The electric charge in these batteries is measured in ampere-hours. Often, the total energy is shown in kilowatt-hours.
Since the 90s, advancements in this technology have happened due to the increasing demand for power tools, mobile phones, laptops, and other portable electronics. Also, the HEV and BEVs have enjoyed the benefits of these advancements as far as energy density and performance are concerned.
Unlike nickel-cadmium, lithium-ion batteries are designed to be recharged on a daily basis regardless of the state of charge. By the end of 2019, the cost of EV batteries was reduced by 87%. In 2018, Tesla EVs featured a range of 400 km on a single charge.
As far as operating costs are concerned, electricity cost is a fraction of the cost of fuel. So, these batteries can help save tons of money.
Initially, lithium-ion batteries were made and commercialized to be used in a large variety of consumer electronics and laptop computers. Since they come with a high energy density and a much longer lifespan, they are called the best type of battery for electric vehicles.
The downside of the conventional lithium-ion type was sensitivity to high/low temperature and performance degradation. Since organic electrolytes are volatile, the oxidized metal oxides make the battery prone to fire, especially if it’s charged improperly or punched.
The early technology didn’t supply charge in cold weather, which is why heaters were needed in order to warm these cells up.
In short, this was a brief introduction to lithium-ion batteries that were designed for EVs. Hope this helps.